HIV is a virus. The virus is transmitted through certain bodily fluids, and the condition is life-long. Activity progresses over time, but current treatment can help to slow or stop the progression. In some parts of the world, including the United States, appropriate treatment and regular monitoring now mean that the viral load, or level of virus in the blood, can become undetectable. As long as the person follows their treatment plan and has regular blood tests to ensure the virus levels remain undetectable, the body will stay healthy, and the virus will not be transmitted through sexual activity.
Without treatment, HIV continues to damage the immune system cells. The body will be more susceptible to certain conditions known as opportunistic infections and diseases. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDSis a syndrome that can result when the body is no longer able to withstand such conditions. At stage 1, the bloodstream contains high levels of the virus. At this time, it can easily be passed to other people.
Within 2 to 4 weeks of exposure, many people develop flu-like symptoms. Not everyone has these symptoms, however, and it is possible for HIV to progress without any indication that the virus is present in the body.
However, the human body cannot completely remove this virus once it is present. In the process, it destroys the CD4 cells. Eventually, this process stabilizes. The immune system reduces the level of viral cells, while the CD4 cell count increases. However, CD4 cells may not return to their original level.
It is important to seek medical help if these symptoms occur, especially if the individual believes they may have been exposed to the HIV virus.
Early treatment can be effective in reducing the impact of HIV. Pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP can be taken on a regular basis to prevent HIV from taking hold, even if exposure occurs.
During the second stage, the virus is active but reproduces at very low levels. At this stage, there are usually no symptoms, or very mild ones. Those who follow a treatment program may remain in this stage for many decades, possibly for the rest of their life, as drug therapy reduces viral activity.
Without treatment, the clinical latency stage lasts around 10 years. Treatment can reduce the levels of the virus to such an extent that it is undetectable. This means that the body remains healthy, and the virus is untransmittable. However, if viral levels are detectable, the virus can be passed on to another person at this stage, even if there are no symptoms.
It is important to have regular monitoring to ensure the undetectable level is maintained. Those living with HIV are encouraged to follow their treatment plan with care and attend all appointments. Everyone — whether they have this virus or not — should take appropriate precautions to avoid or prevent transmission of HIV and other diseases.HIV \u0026 AIDS - signs, symptoms, transmission, causes \u0026 pathology
In people who are undergoing drug therapy for HIV, their level of immunity remains strong enough to prevent the condition from progressing to AIDS. With current treatment options, AIDS is unlikely to develop. Without treatment, however, the viral load can increase, and the CD4 cell count can drop. This reduced immunity leaves the body susceptible to various infections and diseases, which can be life-threatening.
Alternatively, the development of one or more opportunistic infections can also indicate the virus has progressed to AIDS. Symptoms at this stage vary greatly, as they tend to be associated with various opportunistic infections.
Conditions that commonly develop at this stage include tuberculosis TBfungal infections of the respiratory system, lymphomahepatitisand some types of cancer. The most effective way of slowing or stopping the progression of HIV is through early diagnosis and appropriate drug therapy.Visit coronavirus.
The HIV. Please visit HIVHistory. We have also relied on material provided by the U. The timeline is presented for informational purposes only.
Where possible, specific dates have been provided and events have been listed in chronological order. Entries without specific dates occurred in the year in which they are listed, but the order of those entries may not reflect the actual chronology of events. Every attempt has been made to ensure that the information contained in the timeline is accurate, but some inaccuracies may exist due to competing source materials.
In cases where our information differs from other timelines including HIV. Please send any corrections to contact hiv. Many Federal agencies have developed public awareness and education campaigns to address HIV prevention, treatment, care, and research. Also included is information about campaigns related to the prevention and diagnosis of hepatitis B and C. El VIH es una amenaza de salud grave para las comunidades latinas, quienes se encuentran en gran desventaja respecto de la incidencia de esta enfermedad en los Estados Unidos.
Want to stay abreast of changes in prevention, care, treatment or research or other public health arenas that affect our collective response to the HIV epidemic? Or are you new to this field? Menu HIV. GOV Search Search. Timeline Navigation s s s s June 5: The U. The article describes cases of a rare lung infection, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia PCPin five young, white, previously healthy gay men in Los Angeles. Los Angeles immunologist Dr. Wayne Shandera, and their colleagues report that all the men have other unusual infections as well, indicating that their immune systems are not working.
Two have already died by the time the report is published and the others will die soon after. He never leaves the Center and dies on October August Acclaimed writer and film producer Larry Kramer holds a meeting of over 80 gay men in his New York City apartment to discuss the burgeoning epidemic.
Kramer invites Dr.From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.
Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. This article's factual accuracy is disputed.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. The examples and perspective in this Heavy US bias, the global scope or Africa is barely mentioned may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this Heavy US bias, the global scope or Africa is barely mentioneddiscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new Heavy US bias, the global scope or Africa is barely mentioned, as appropriate.
April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. Bushwick Daily. L, Lyons, H. Report of a Case". American Journal of Clinical Pathology. Archives of Internal Medicine. Retrieved 25 April Sacramento Press. ILAR Journal.
A Timeline of HIV and AIDS
The New York Times. Retrieved 24 January Several Times". Retrieved on Rutgers University Press. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Altman July 3, Retrieved February 20, Archived from the original PDF on I Parte ". Archived from the original on TIME Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
Archived from the original on July 9, Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 15 March From throughnumbers of HIV infections were calculated using back-calculation methodology. From throughHIV infections were estimated from a statistical method that applied a stratified extrapolation approach using results from a test for recent HIV infection and HIV testing history data collected by jurisdictions that conducted HIV incidence surveillance.
Since the early days, when its surveillance was critical to laying the foundation for a public health response, CDC has provided surveillance, innovative science, and guidance to partners to understand, prevent, and treat HIV.
It is a testament to the work of CDC and its many partners that the annual number of new HIV infections has remained stable over the past decades, at levels much lower than in years past.
Early s. A new disease appears. Research shows it can be transmitted sexually, through donated blood, injection drug use, and from pregnant women to their babies.
International effects are recognized. Bar Graph Key. A report described Pneumocystis pneumonia in previously healthy, gay men in LA. This is the first official reporting of what will be known as the AIDS epidemic. About 30 Epidemic Intelligence Service officers and staff participated. MMWR reports 22 cases of unexplained immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections in infants. MMWR suggests that AIDS may be caused by an infectious agent that is transmitted sexually or through exposure to blood or blood products and issues recommendations for preventing transmission.
Link to report of most cases of AIDS have been among homosexual men, injection drug users, Haitians, and people with hemophilia September 2: CDC publishes first recommendations to prevent occupational exposure for healthcare workers. Link to report of CDC first recommendations to prevent occupational exposure for healthcare workers September 9: CDC identifies all major routes of transmission; says HIV not transmitted through casual contact, food, water, air, or environmental surfaces.
Link to report of CDC identification of all major routes of transmission. July Needle-sharing identified as transmission method. CDC states that avoiding injection drug use and reducing needle-sharing "should also be effective in preventing transmissions of the virus.
CDC issues safeguards for the nation's blood supply. National and international response grows. US government orchestrates massive public outreach. Blood screening guidelines issued. October Surgeon General, C.
The report makes it clear that HIV cannot be spread casually and calls for a nationwide education campaign including early sex education in schoolsincreased use of condoms, and voluntary HIV testing. Link to report of Surgeon General, C. Link to CDC report on guidelines for prevention and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus to health-care and public-safety workers. HIV transmission from healthcare worker reported. AIDS deaths increase. CDC expands prevention efforts into businesses, labor, and community organizations.
Community-planning process launched. CDC institutes the community-planning process to better target local prevention efforts. Guidelines issued to prevent opportunistic infections OIs and for the use of antiretroviral therapy. Africa efforts expand. Link to CDC report on the first national treatment guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adults and adolescents with HIV. President George W. Link to President George W. CDC estimates that 27, of the estimated 40, new infections that occur each year in the US result from transmission by individuals who do not know they are infected.
Link to CDC report that estimates 27, of the 40, new infections that occur each year in US result from transmission by individuals who do not know they are infected April CDC announces new initiatives to get people living with HIV diagnosed and into care and treatment.HIV treatment involves taking medicines that slow the progression of the virus in your body.
HIV is a type of virus called a retrovirus, and the combination of drugs used to treat it is called antiretroviral therapy ART. ART is usually taken as a combination of 3 or more drugs to have the greatest chance of lowering the amount of HIV in your body. Ask your health care provider about the availability of multiple drugs combined into 1 pill.
If the HIV medicines you are taking are not working as well as they should, your health care provider may change your prescription. A change is not unusual because the same treatment does not affect everyone in the same way. Let your health care provider and pharmacist know about any medical conditions you may have and any other medicines you are taking. Additionally, if you or your partner is pregnant or considering getting pregnant, talk to your health care provider to determine the right type of ART that can greatly reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to your baby.
You can find HIV care and treatment external icon across the U. Treatment guidelines external icon from the U. If you delay treatment, the virus will continue to harm your immune system and put you at higher risk for developing AIDS, which can be life threatening.
Follow your treatment plan exactly as your health care provider has prescribed. Medicines should be taken at specific times of the day, with or without certain kinds of food. If you have questions about when and how to take your medicines, talk to your health care provider or pharmacist. Like most medicines, antiretroviral therapy ART can cause side effects.
However, not everyone experiences side effects from ART. Contact your health care provider or pharmacist immediately if you begin to experience problems or if your treatment makes you sick.
Your health care provider may prescribe medicines to help manage the side effects or may decide to change your treatment plan. The drugs most commonly recommended for HIV have no known interactions with hormones. Talk to your health care provider about any concerns you have about taking HIV medicines and hormone therapy at the same time. Your health care provider will work with you to help you stay healthy. They will also help to ensure that your hormone therapy stays on track.
Taking your HIV medicines exactly the way your health care provider tells you to will help keep your viral load low and your CD4 cell count high. If you skip your medicines, even now and then, you are giving HIV the chance to multiply rapidly.The itinerary was excellent (we loved Heimaey, especially the hotel).
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In a study published in the Journal of Applied Social Psychology, researchers tested the effects that mints had against a control group, where no mints were given, in order to measure their effectiveness in increasing tips. The first group studied had waiters giving mints along with the check, making no mention of the mints themselves.
The second group had waiters bring out two mints by hand, and they mentioned them to the table ("Would anyone like some mints before they leave. The last group had waiters bring out the check first along with a few mints. A short time afterward, the waiter came back with another set of mints, and let customers know that they had brought out more mints, in case they wanted another. At first glance, the last two groups seem very similar: two mints per-person were brought out, and the waiter mentioned them.
In the last test, the only difference was that the waiter brought out the second set of mints after some time had passed, and mentioned that they had done so in case the table would like some more. The post-purchase follow up with genuine concern for the customer ("I thought you might like more mints. It was the surprise and the perception of the waiter's willingness to follow up post purchase that made customers so happy.
That first purchase is especially critical, and the process of creating supporters out of customers doesn't just end with making a great product. Given what we know about the power of following up, what can online businesses do to create a similar kind of customer satisfaction that waiters were able to do with mere mints. Obviously that follow up freebie (chocolate mint or otherwise) works very well, but what kind of follow-up can be offered.
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Researchers concluded that this "personalization" aspect was what triggered the increased tips. Good to know, because it means that it's applicable to businesses outside of restaurants. From Buyers to Brand Supporters First impressions go a long way.